In today’s digital economy, where many important activities are through with the aid of computer, the desire for reliable, simple, flexible and secure system is a great concern and a difficult issue for the organisation. Day by day security breaches and transaction fraud increases, the dependence on secure identification and personal verification technologies is to turn into a great concern to the organisation. By measuring something unique about an individual and going to that to identify, a company can dramatically improve their security ways. Awareness of security issues is rapidly increasing among company how they want to protect the info which is a greatest asset that the company possesses. The organisation wants to protect facts from either internal or external real danger. Security plays a very part in the agency and to produce computer system secure, various biometric techniques have been developed. Today biometric techniques are a trusted method of recognising the identity for this person based on physiological or behavioral qualities. Biometrics techniques exploit human’s unique physical or behavioral traits in order to authenticate people. Characteristics measured are face, fingerprints, hand geometry, iris, retinal, voice for example. Biometric authentication is increasingly being employed in areas like banking, retailing, defense, manufacturing, health industry, stock exchange, public sector, airport security, internet security etc. Biometric technologies offer a highly-secure identification and personal verification systems. Biometric techniques are an attempt in providing a robust solution since challenging problems in protective measures. Biometrics focuses on the analysis of physical or behavioral traits that determine individual identity. Biometrics can he used to substantiate the identity of an individual based on the measurement and analysis of unique physical and behavioral data. Indeed, biometrics techniques increasingly are getting viewed as the preferred to be able to confirm ones own identity closely.
The reputation for biometric techniques is not new, it trace its origin throughout the past. The traditional biometric technique which was practiced was a form of finger printing being included in China their 14th century, as through the Portuguese historian Joao de Barros. The Chinese merchants were stamping children’s palm and footprints in theory with ink to distinguish the babies from one another. Biometrics the ancient Greek word could be the combination of two words -bio means life, metric means measuring.It is the study of methods for uniquely recognizing humans dependant upon physical or behavioral characterstics. The physiological characterstics are fingerprint, face, hand geometry, DNA and iris respect. Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person like signature, study of keystroke, voice etc. Thus a biometric system is essentially a pattern recognition system which results in a personal identification by determining the authenticity of a specific physiological or behavioral characteristic possessed by the user. Biometric characteristics are collected employing a device referred to as a sensor. These sensors are widely-used to acquire the data needed for verification or identification as well as convert info to more recent digital type code. The standard the device chosen to capture data has an exceptional impact along the recognition scores. The devices could be dslrs for face recognition, ear recognition etc or a cell phone for voice recognition a lot of others. A biometric system operates in verification mode or identification mode. In verification mode the system validates a person identity by comparing the captured biometric data using biometric template stored on the database and is also mainly ideal for positive respect. In the identification mode your machine captures the biometric data of just one and searches the biometric template almost all users involving database till a match is not found.
DIFFERENT Regarding BIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES
o Face Recognition
The biometric system can automatically recognize a person by the facial skin. This technology works by analyzing specific features in the face like – the distance between the eyes, width of the nose, position of cheekbones, jaw line, chin ,unique shape, pattern etc. Techniques involve measurement of the eyes, nose, mouth, along with facial features for reputation. To increase accuracy these systems also may measure mouth and lip movement.Face recognition captures characteristics of a face either from video or still image and translates unique characteristics for a face to the set of numbers. These data collected from deal with are combined in only one unit that uniquely identifies each gentleman. Sometime the features of the face are analyzed like the continued changes in the face while smiling or crying or reacting to different situation etc.The entire face of the person is taken note or the different part of this face is taken into consideration for the identity of a typical person. It is highly complex technology. Information capture with the help of video or thermal imaging. The user identity is confirmed by looking at the screen. The primary benefit to presenting facial recognition as a biometric authenticator is people are which is used to presenting their faces for identification and instead of ID card or photo identity card this technique will be beneficial in identifying a personality. As the person faces changes by this or person goes for plastic surgery, in instance the facial recognition algorithm should measure the relative position of ears, noses, eyes and other facial presents.
o Hand Geometry:
Hand geometry is techniques that capture the physical characteristics of any user’s hand and fingers. It analyses finger image ridge endings, bifurcations or branches made by ridges. Scalping strategies measure and record the length, width, thickness, and surface area of an individual’s hand. It is used in applications like access control and along with attendance a lot of. It is easy to use, relatively inexpensive and widely accepted. A camera captures a 3 dimensional picture of the hand. A verification template is created and stored in the database and is compared on the template during the time of verification for this person. Fingerprint identification.Currently fingerprint readers are increasingly being built into computer memory cards to be employed with laptops or PCs and also in cellular telephones, and digital admin assistants. It is successfully implemented in the area of physical access keep control on.
o Eye Recognition:
This technique involves scanning of retina and iris in eyes. Retina scan technology maps the capillary pattern of the retina, a thin nerve by the back with the eye. A retina scan measures patterns at over 400 situations. It analyses the iris of the eye, which is the colored ring of tissue that surrounds the pupil of a person’s eye. This is a highly mature technology with a successful track record in various application areas. Retina scanning captures unique pattern of blood vessels where the iris scanning captures the iris. Person must focus on a point and several weeks in that position the device uses ray of light to capture the unique retina characterstics.It is extremely secure and accurate and used heavily in controlled environment. However, it is expensive, secure and requires perfect alignment and usually user must look inside the device with proper concentration. Iris recognition is one of the most reliable biometric identification and verification methods. May used by security for travellers.Retina scan is used in military and government organization. Organizations use retina scans primarily for authentication in high-end security applications to control access, for example, in government buildings, military operations or other restricted quarters, to authorized personnel really only. The unique pattern and characteristics in the human iris remain unchanged throughout one’s lifetime and no two persons in the field of can have the identical iris pattern.
o Voice Biometrics
Voice biometrics, uses the individuals voice to verify or identify the sufferer. It verifies as well as identifies the subwoofer. A microphone on a standard PC with software is required to examine the unique characteristics of your companion. Mostly used in telephone-based applications. Voice verification set up to use and does not need a great deal of user education. To enroll, the user speaks a given pass phrase into a microphone or telephone handset. The system then creates a template based on numerous characteristics, including pitch, tone, and shape of larynx. Typically, the enrollment process takes less than a minute for your user to try to to. Voice verification is one of the least intrusive of all biometric methods. Furthermore, voice verification is easy to use and doesn’t involve a number of user education.
o Signature Verification
Signature verification technology is the analysis associated with the individual’s written signature, for example speed, acceleration rate, stroke length and pressure applied during the signature. Many different for you to capture data for analysis i.e. an important pen is proven to recognize and analyze different movements when writing a signature, the data will then be captured within the pen. Information can be captured within a special tablet that measures time, pressure, acceleration as well as the duration the pen touches it good.As the user writes on the tablet, the movement of the pen generates sound against paper an is employed for verification. A sufferer’s signature may change over time, however, could result in the system not recognizing authorized users. Signature systems might rely on the device like special tablet, a distinctive pen other people. When the user signs his name on an electric pad, rather than merely comparing signatures, the device instead compares the direction, speed and pressure of the writing instrument as it moves along side pad.
This method relies on the fact every single person has her/his own keyboard-melody, that is analysed when the user products. It measures the time taken by user in pressing a particular key or searching for the key.
OTHER BIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES ARE
o Vein/vascular patterns: Analyses the
veins in, for example, the hand and the.
o Nail identification: Analyses the tracks in their nails.
o DNA patterns: it can be very expensive technique irritated takes time for verification/identification of specific
o Sweat pore analysis: Analyses the way pores on the finger are normally found.
o Ear recognition: Size and shape of an ear are unique for every person.
o Odour detection: Person is verified or identified by their smell.
o Walking recognition: It analyses type person walks.
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