The thyroid is a gland located inferior to the front of the neck and has a butterfly-like shape. It lies below Adam’s apple. It secretes various hormones like thyroxine (T3 and T4) and Thyroid stimulating hormone .
Thyroid hormones have various functions in the body and have a great Influence on metabolism, growth, and development .
The various disorders associated with thyroid hormones are:
- Hypothyroidism: The disease associated with low levels of thyroid hormones in the body.
- Hyperthyroidism: The disease that occurs due to high levels of thyroid hormones in the body.
- Goitre: It is characterized by swelling of the thyroid gland due to iodine deficiency.
- Thyroiditis: It is a thyroid gland disorder characterized by inflammation of the thyroid gland due to any type of viral infection or autoimmune condition.
- Thyroid cancer: It thyroid gland cancer.
Ways to Control Thyroid related problems
- A balanced diet and remove junk food , 
Eating a balanced diet along with regular exercise is important for maintaining hormone homeostasis in the body. Food items that make up balanced diet should be added to the daily diet as making dietary change maintain hormonal levels in the body and improves thyroid glands function.
Along with a balanced diet, all the junk food and processed food items should be removed from the diet as these foods do not have the required nutrients and can increase the severity of the disorder due to lack of nutrients.
- Food items for controlling thyroid disorders
a) Coconut oil 
Coconut oil is used to treat thyroid-related disorders as it contains a fatty acid chain that improves the functioning of thyroid glands and hormones.
If coconut oil is used without heating, it can help the patient in losing weight, increases metabolism, and maintains body temperature.
As coconut oil has a high content of saturated healthy fat, so consuming coconut oil with adequate exercise and a balanced diet can treat thyroid-related problems.
b) Apple cider vinegar 
Apple cider vinegar plays important role in treating and controlling thyroid disorders as it normalizes the production and expression of thyroid hormones.
It can normalize the body’s metabolism and help in alkalizing the body environment as it regulates the levels of fats in the body, remove toxins, and increases the absorption of nutrients in the body. It should be consumed with water and honey as a mixture early in the morning.
c) Ginger 
It is the most widely prescribed household remedy to treat thyroid disorders as it has a large quantity of minerals like potassium and magnesium which are responsible for relieving inflammation and swelling of thyroid glands.
It can be used in combination with coconut oil for better results.
d) Vitamins 
Vitamins relieve the underlying causes associated with thyroid disorders. Vitamin B helps in the proper functioning of thyroid glands and hormones.
Vitamin B 12 relives the symptoms of hypothyroidism and is found in foods like eggs, meat, fish, legumes, milk, and nuts. Vitamin B12 supplements can also be prescribed to the patients.
Vitamin D deficiency is also associated with thyroid disorders and the body can produce vitamin D through sunlight so 15 minutes of exposure to sunlight in a day can be helpful for the patients.
Vitamin D rich foods are salmon and mackerel, dairy products, orange juice, and egg yolks. If these sources are not sufficient patient can also be prescribed vitamin D supplements.
e) Almonds 
Almonds are the best food for the expression of thyroid hormones and are a rich source of protein, fiber, minerals, selenium.
Selenium is a nutrient for thyroid glands and hormones. Almonds also contain minerals like magnesium involved in the thyroid gland smooth working.
f) Beans 
Beans are rich in protein, fiber, essential minerals, antioxidants, carbohydrates, and vitamins hence improve thyroid hormone functions and related disorders.
g) Flaxseeds 
Flaxseeds are used to control thyroid-related problems as it is a rich source of good fatty acid and helps in thyroid hormone production. Flaxseeds rich in magnesium and vitamin B12 help improve hypothyroidism.
- Iodine Supplements 
Iodine is the most important nutrient involved in thyroid hormone homeostasis hence iodine supplements improve thyroid gland and hormone functions.
Iodine supplements restore iodine levels and balance in the body and help in controlling thyroid disorders.
- Adequate exercise 
Regular and adequate exercise is very important along with medicine and natural remedies to treat thyroid-related disorders.
Adequate and proper exercise improves hormone levels in the body and helps in reducing weight which is important for dealing with thyroid problems.
Avoid having crash diets and do not starve your body as starving deprives your body of essential nutrients which can worsen the thyroid disorder.
- Eat slowly 
Eating meals in a rush do not make your body feel satisfied or full as eating chewing food properly is associated with mindfulness and improves the connection between thyroid and brain giving the feeling of satiation.
Eating slowly increases metabolism as the thyroid gland regulates metabolism in the body.
- Yoga 
Yoga makes a strong connection between mind and body organs including the endocrine system. The endocrine system gives a great response to yoga and improves thyroid gland and hormones related disorders.
Performing different types of asana of yoga is important for maintaining levels of thyroid hormones.
- Green leafy vegetables 
Research has proved that green vegetables like kale, cabbage, brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower, and salads in cooked form improve the thyroid glands functioning.
It is seen that in raw form these vegetables contain goitrogens hence cause disruption of thyroid hormone homeostasis.
- Eating fats and probiotics , 
It has been proven that having a good quantity of lubricant foods like butter and ghee can improve thyroid glands and hormones’ functioning in the body .
Prebiotics diet in food helps in improving maintaining homeostasis of thyroid hormones in the body so having probiotics is important for maintaining thyroid glands and hormone functions .
Dairy products like milk, cheese, and yogurt are rich in iodine and are the best household remedies for thyroid functioning .
Dairy products are also rich in vitamins that are also essential for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland and hormones .